C++ (pronounced "see plus plus") is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises a combination of both high-level and low-level language features. Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, it adds object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. Originally named C with Classes, the language was renamed C++ in 1983, as a pun involving the increment operator.
C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. As an efficient compiler to native code, its application domains include systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games. Several groups provide both free and proprietary C++ compiler software, including the GNU Project, Microsoft, Intel and Embarcadero Technologies. C++ has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C# and Java. Other successful languages such as Objective-C use a very different syntax and approach to adding classes to C.
C++ is also used for hardware design, where the design is initially described in C++, then analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to create a register-transfer level hardware description language via high-level synthesis.
The language began as enhancements to C, first adding classes, then virtual functions, operator overloading, multiple inheritance, templates and exception handling among other features. After years of development, the C++ programming language standard was ratified in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998. The standard was amended by the 2003 technical corrigendum, ISO/IEC 14882:2003. The current standard extending C++ with new features was ratified and published by ISO in September 2011 as ISO/IEC 14882:2011 (informally known as C++11)
- ↑ Schildt, Herbert (1 August 1998). C++ The Complete Reference (Third ed.). Osborne McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-882476-0.
- ↑ Stroustrup, Bjarne (7 March 2010). "C++ Faq: When was C++ Invented". ATT.com. Retrieved 16 September 2010.
- ↑ "Programming Language Popularity". 2009. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
- ↑ "TIOBE Programming Community Index". 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- ↑ What's CvSDL?". http://www.cvsdl.com/: cvsdl. Retrieved 8 March 2010. "CvSDL was introduced in 2003 as a C++ class framework with Verilog features that worked like a Verilog simulator. Since then it has been revamped to be a standard-compliant HDL simulator, currently supporting Verilog. It is capable of cosimulating with SystemC. It can be used just as an HDL simulator or to generate executable specifications written in Verilog and SystemC on the hardware side and in C, C++ and SystemC on the software side."
- C++ More Idioms
- JTC1/SC22/WG21 – The ISO/IEC C++ Standard Working Group
- n3242.pdf – Final Committee Draft of "ISO/IEC IS 14882 – Programming Languages – C++" (28 February 2011)
- A paper by Stroustrup showing the timeline of C++ evolution (1979–1991)
- Bjarne Stroustrup's C++ Style and Technique FAQ
- C++ FAQ Lite by Marshall Cline
- C++ FQA Lite – Yossi Kreinin
- Code practices for not breaking binary compatibility between releases of C++ libraries (from KDE Techbase)
- The Standard C++ Foundation is a non-profit organization that promotes the use and understanding of standard C++. Bjarne Stroustrup is a director of the organization.
- C Programming.com:Resource for programming
- C++ Tutorial